Disaster Management in Flash Floods in Leh (Ladakh): A Case Study

 

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Case Study & Use Cases. This is the same powerful technology used exclusively by top U.S. federal agencies and disaster management organizations around the globe for over a decade powered by Pacific Disaster Center’s global, cloud-based DisasterAWARE platform. NATURAL AND HUMAN INDUCED HAZARDS– Vol. I - Case Studies of Natural Disasters - Chen Yong and Li Juan ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Hazards The impact on the rural population affected by the flood disaster was overwhelming. Five million people were made homeless in these three provinces (Hu Bei, Hu Nan and Jiang Xi). Start studying HESI Case Study- Natural Disaster. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.


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On August 6, case study on disaster,in the dark of the midnight, there were flash floods due to cloud burst in Leh in Ladakh region of North India. It rained 14 inches in 2 hours, causing loss of human life case study on disaster destruction. The civil hospital of Leh was badly damaged and rendered dysfunctional. Search and rescue operations were launched by the Indian Army immediately after the disaster.

The injured and the dead were shifted to Army Hospital, Leh, and mass casualty management was started by the army doctors while relief work was mounted by the army and civil administration. The present study was done to document disaster management strategies and approaches and to assesses the impact of flash floods on human lives, health hazards, and future implications of a natural disaster.

The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration, health officials, and army officials who case study on disaster rescue operations, restoration of communication and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local case study on disaster. Almost half of the people who died were local residents Age-wise analysis of the deaths shows that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group of 25—50 years, accounting for The gender analysis showed that Disaster preparedness is critical, particularly in natural disasters.

The Army's immediate search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management effectively and efficiently mitigated the impact of flash floods, and restored normal life. The cloud burst occurred all of a sudden that caught everyone unawares. Within a short span of about 2 h, it recorded a rainfall of 14 inches. There were flash floods, and the Indus River and its tributaries and waterways were overflowing.

As many as people were killed, were injured, and many went missing, perhaps washed away with the gorging rivers and waterways. There was vast destruction all around. Over houses collapsed. Men, case study on disaster, women, and children were buried under the debris, case study on disaster. The local communication networks and transport services were severely affected.

The main telephone exchange and mobile network system BSNLwhich was the lifeline in the far-flung parts of the region, was completely destroyed. Leh case study on disaster was flooded and the runway was covered with debris, making it non-functional. Road transport was badly disrupted as roads were washed away and blocked with debris at many places. The civil medical and health facilities were also severely affected, as the lone district civil hospital was flooded and filled with debris.

The paper presents a firsthand description case study on disaster a disaster and its prompt management. The data was collected from the records of the district civil administration, case study on disaster, the civil hospital, and the Army Hospital, Leh. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication, and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents.

Three core disaster management strategies were adopted to manage the crisis. These strategies included: i Response, rescue, and relief operations, ii Mass casualty management, and iii Rehabilitation. The initial response was carried out immediately by the Government of India, case study on disaster.

The Indian Army activated the disaster management system immediately, which is always kept in full preparedness as per the standard army protocols and procedures. During the flash floods, the government civil hospital was flooded and rendered dysfunctional. Although the National Disaster Management Act 1 was in place, with the government civil hospital being under strain, the applicability of the act was hampered.

The Army Hospital quickly responded through rescue and relief operations and mass casualty management. By dawn, massive search operations were started with the help of civil authorities and local people. The patients admitted in the civil hospital were evacuated to the Army Hospital, Leh in army helicopters. The runway of Leh airport was cleared up within a few hours after the disaster so that speedy inflow of supplies could be carried out along with the evacuation of the casualties requiring tertiary level healthcare to case study on disaster Army Command Hospital in Chandigarh.

The work to make the roads operational was started soon after the disaster. The army engineers had started rebuilding the collapsed bridges by the second day. Though the main mobile network was dysfunctional, the other mobile network Airtel still worked with limited connectivity in the far-flung areas of the mountains. The army communication system was the main and the only channel of communication for managing and coordinating the rescue and relief operations.

All casualties were taken to the Army Hospital, Leh. Severely injured people were evacuated from distant locations by helicopters, directly landing on the helipad of the Army Hospital. In order to reinforce the medical staff, nurses were flown in from the Super Specialty Army Hospital Research and ReferralNew Delhi, to handle the flow of casualties by the third day following the disaster.

National Disaster Cell kept medical teams ready in Chandigarh in case they were required. The mortuary of the government civil hospital was still functional where all the dead case study on disaster were taken, while the injured were handled by Army Hospital, Leh. Army Hospital, Leh converted its auditorium into a crisis expansion ward.

The injured started coming in around hrs on August 6, They were given first aid and were provided with dry clothes. A majority of the patients had multiple injuries. Those who sustained fractures were evacuated to Army Command Hospital, Chandigarh, by the Army's helicopters, after first aid. Healthcare staff from the government civil hospital joined the Army Hospital, Leh to assist them. In the meanwhile, medical equipment and drugs were transferred from the flooded and damaged government civil hospital to one of the nearby buildings where they could receive the casualties.

By the third day following the disaster, the operation theatre of the government civil hospital was made functional. Table 1 gives the details of the patients admitted at the Army Hospital. The analysis of the data showed that majority of the people who lost their lives were mainly local residents Among the dead, there case study on disaster The age-wise analysis of the deaths showed that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group 26—50 years, accounting for Victims who survived the disaster were admitted to the Army Hospital, Leh.

Due to flash floods, several houses were destroyed. The families were transferred to tents provided by the Indian Army and government and non-government agencies. The need for permanent shelter for these people emerged as a major task. The Prime Minister of India announced Rs, case study on disaster. Another Rs. The Army maintains an inventory of essential medicines and supplies in readiness as a part of routing emergency preparedness. The essential non-food items were airlifted to the affected areas.

These included blankets, tents, gum boots, and clothes. Gloves and masks were provided for the persons who were working to clear the debris from the roads and near the affected buildings. Public Health is seriously threatened in disasters, case study on disaster, especially due to lack of water supply and sanitation.

People having lost their homes and living in temporary shelters tents puts a great strain on water and sanitation facilities.

The pumping station was washed away, case study on disaster, thus disrupting water supply in the Leh Township. A large number of toilets became non-functional as they were filled with silt, as houses were built at the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains. Temporary arrangements of deep trench latrines were made while the army engineers made field flush latrines case study on disaster use by the troops.

Water was stagnant and there was the risk of contamination by mud or dead bodies buried in the debris, thus making the quality of drinking water questionable. Therefore, case study on disaster, water purification units were installed and established. Further, case study on disaster, super-chlorination was done at all the water points in the army establishments.

To deal with fly menace in the entire area, anti-fly measures were taken up actively and intensely. There was an impending high risk of food shortage and crisis of hunger and malnutrition, case study on disaster.

The majority of food supply came from the plains and low-lying areas in North India through the major transport routes Leh—Srinagar and Leh—Manali national highways.

These routes are non-functional for most part of the winter. The local agricultural and vegetable cultivation has always been scanty due to extreme cold weather.

The food supplies took a further setback due to the unpredicted heavy downpour. Food storage facilities were also flooded and washed away. Government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the Indian Army immediately established food supply and distribution system in the affected areas from their food stores and airlifting food supplies from other parts of the country.

There was a high risk of water-borne diseases following the disaster. Many human bodies were washed away and suspected to have contaminated water bodies. There was an increased fly menace. There was an urgent need to prevent disease transmission due to contaminated drinking water sources and flies. There was also a need to rehabilitate people who suffered from crush injuries sustained during the disaster. The public health facilities, especially, the primary health centers and sub-health centers, were not adequately equipped and were poorly connected by roads to the main city of Leh.

Due to difficult accessibility, it took many hours to move casualties from the far-flung areas, worsening the crisis and rescue and relief operations. The population would have a higher risk of mental health problems like post-traumatic stress disorder, deprivation, and depression, case study on disaster. Therefore, relief and rehabilitation would include increased awareness of the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and its alleviation through education on developing coping mechanisms.

Although it would be too early to estimate the impact on economy, the economy of the region would be severely affected due to the disaster. The scanty local vegetable and grain cultivation was destroyed by the heavy rains. Many houses were destroyed where people had invested all their savings. Case study on disaster was the main source of income for the local people in the region, case study on disaster.

The summer season is the peak tourist season in Ladakh and that is when the natural disaster took place.

 

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