How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper (with Pictures)


content of a research paper

Successful content marketers often possess distinguishing characteristics. Our annual research consistently shows that one of the most important characteristics they have in common is a documented content marketing strategy. Download our complete guide to learn how to develop this key document for your organization. A research paper analyzes a perspective or argues a point. Regardless of the type of research paper you are writing, your finished research paper should present your own thinking backed up by others' ideas and information. To draw a parallel, a lawyer researches and reads about many cases and uses them to support their own case. DISCLAIMER: This article is not written by Stanley Milgram, but is intended as an example of a psychology research paper that someone might have written after conducting the first Milgram-study. It's presented here for educational purposes. Normally you would use double spacing in the paper. EXAMPLE OF A RESEARCH PAPER.

Original Content Marketing Research

This sample Content Analysis Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Like other free research paper examples, it is not a custom content of a research paper paper. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our custom writing services and buy a paper on any of the political science research paper topics. Issues in Designing Content Analysis Studies. Content analysis is, as its name suggests, the analysis of the content of communications. Researchers use content analysis to make statements about the meaning, impact, or producers of those communications.

Depending on the purpose of the specific research project, analysts may focus on the literal content or seek to extract deeper or latent meanings. This multiplicity of purposes has content of a research paper content analysts to use a variety of strategies for analyzing text systematically, content of a research paper.

Some of these strategies, such as word counts, are easy to replicate, whereas other forms are far more interpretive and dependent on the judgment of the individual who codes the text. Most forms of content analysis yield quantitative indicators. Indeed, some would content of a research paper quantification as an essential aspect of content analysis e. Others view it as preferable but not essential Berelson, content of a research paper, ; Holsti, Content analysis is not new.

According to Krippendorffempirical studies of communications can content of a research paper dated back to the s. More immediate ancestors to modern content analysis, however, are studies that sought to evaluate the content of mass media in the early 20th century and Nazi propaganda during World War II Berelson, ; Krippendorff, As a method for studying communications, content analysis has been an especially popular methodology in the field of mass communication.

Holsti reported a trend toward a more frequent use of content analysis, as well as its application to a broader array of problems, including subjects of interest to political scientists. He furthermore noted an emerging tendency for content analysis to be used in combination with other social science research methods and a move toward computer-assisted content analysis.

This research paper emphasizes quantification, although it also discusses some of the trade-offs between quantitative and qualitative forms of content analysis. After discussing definitions and forms of content analysis, the paper describes some of the issues in designing content analysis studies, with the objective of giving the reader the basic tools for evaluating whether this methodology might be useful in her or his research. The paper then turns to the issue of reliability and stability, which are of content of a research paper importance when using human coders, and subsequently turns to a discussion of the emerging strategy of using computer assistance in the coding of text for content analysis, content of a research paper.

The paper ends with an assessment of the future of content analysis in political science. This concise definition captures the essence of content analysis very well, although it may be worth adding that text is not the only content that might be subjected to analysis. Transcripts of oral communications, as well as visual communications, could also be subjected to this type of analysis. This research paper, however, limits its scope to the content analysis of text or at least verbal material and does not consider the analysis of visual communications.

In other words, content analysis endeavors to analyze text in a systematic, empirical manner that is made sufficiently explicit to permit replication. Generally, this means that content analysis proceeds on the basis of instructions that enumerate explicit categories. Although this is accurate, it also sells content analysis short as a method for analyzing content of a research paper content of communications.

The coding operation is at the heart of content analysis, content of a research paper, but content analysis cannot be reduced to coding, just as public opinion research cannot be reduced to the survey instruments often used to ascertain public opinion. The coding of text or other communications permits the analyst to ascertain patterns and test hypotheses about those communications.

Although not all studies employing content analysis satisfy that condition, such studies are generally undertaken to answer some question that is either of scientific interest or of political or professional relevance. In other words, studies may employ content analysis for a variety of purposes. Holsti summarized these purposes into three groupings:. Within political science, content analysis has been used for all three of these purposes, although not with the same frequency.

Studies that use content analysis to evaluate leader personality, content of a research paper, or both, tend to be more plentiful in political science than studies of the impact of communication. Studies that describe the characteristics of communications tend to be more plentiful in the study of mass communication than in political science.

A distinct benefit of content analysis is that it is an unobtrusive research method Babbie, The advantage of such a research method is that, one, it does not require the cooperation of the subject under investigation, and two, the subject will not alter her or his behavior as a result of awareness of being tested.

The second point is important. There is evidence, for instance, that survey respondents on occasion provide socially acceptable answers rather than truthfully reporting their behavior. They may say they voted, because they think they should have, when in fact they stayed home. The first point is relevant to the study of political decision makers and foreign policy decision making. Although it can be useful to understand what motivates decision makers, it is highly unlikely that such individuals would make themselves available for psychological testing, content of a research paper.

Some researchers e. It is in this area of political science that content analysis is used most consistently. Other benefits of content analysis include that it is relatively easy to undertake. It requires no special equipment or access to significant research content of a research paper Babbie, Whereas survey research can be expensive, a study using content analysis can be completed for very little money.

A single investigator with access to the relevant textual material for coding can complete a content analysis study, content of a research paper, although a very large content analysis—based study may require multiple human coders or access to content analysis software in order to complete the study in a timely fashion.

Paying human coders or purchasing content analysis software would, obviously, add to the expense of implementing a content analysis study. Further, an investigator can much more easily repeat a portion of the study than would be the case with survey research Babbie, ; Bryman, This includes the determination that an additional dimension needs to be considered in the analysis.

It requires going back through the text to code the additional variable, which can be time-consuming when human coders are used, but it remains feasible as long as the text remains available. Repeating the analysis or adding another dimension to be coded is quite easy when a computer-assisted content analysis strategy is used. Finally, content content of a research paper lends itself to studying trends over long stretches of time Bryman, For instance, Eshbaugh-Soha analyzed presidential speeches across a year period.

All of these advantages make content analysis useful and attractive. On the other hand, the method is limited to the investigation of text and recorded human communications Babbie, ; Bryman, As already mentioned, content analysis generally refers to quantitative assessment of various aspects of text. This research paper places its emphasis on such analysis. As outlined previously, content analysis is defined by the quest to analyze text in a manner that is systematic, valid, and replicable.

The first and last criteria are most easily satisfied through quantification. Although qualitative content analysis may be equally valid in its assessments of text, it is much less likely to be systematic, and it is exceedingly difficult to replicate. Although quantification can have important limitations, it has the distinct advantage of transparency: An explicitly formulated research design for a systematic and quantitative research design not only can be replicated but also allows any reader to evaluate how the investigator arrived at her or his conclusions.

Qualitative analysis does not inherently require content of a research paper explicit research design and quite often depends on the expertise of the investigator see, e.

The advantage of such analysis is that an investigator with substantive expertise may be able to identify nuances that a quantitative analysis misses. On the other hand, qualitative analysis, because it often lacks the sort of explicit coding scheme that is required for quantitative analysis, provides much less of a hedge against investigator bias.

If this is not done, there is the distinct risk that qualitative content analysis leads an investigator to confirm her or his expectations when these are not in fact supported by the evidence. Quantitative content analysis, on the other hand, is more explicitly systematic and less dependent on the ability of an investigator to counteract the tendency to focus on confirming evidence. However, it may be less sensitive to contextual and cultural cues.

In addition, the validity of quantitative content analysis depends on the adequacy of the coding scheme employed to analyze the text.

First, it is far easier to code manifest than latent content. Manifest content refers to the surface meaning of text, whereas latent content refers to the deeper or symbolic meaning. Content analysis has generally favored a focus on manifest content. Indeed, it has often been defined in terms of explicit and systematic coding rules Holsti, In contrast, content of a research paper, the analysis of the deeper, underlying meaning of text has more often been the province of those who favor qualitative content analysis or also discourse analysis Neumann, As discussed previously, the latter type of analysis is less transparent, and replication is difficult or impossible.

The focus on explicit and systematic coding rules does not mean that content analysis avoids interpretation but rather that it separates the data-gathering operation the coding, counting, or both from the interpretation of the results.

Second, the coding scheme needs to be carefully designed not only to ensure that it is explicitly stated and replicable, but also to ensure that it is grounded in the research question.

In other words, the categories that are employed should be theoretically justified so that the resulting data help the investigator draw valid inferences from the text. What constitutes an appropriate coding scheme will depend on the research question the investigator seeks to test. The distinction between manifest and latent content is perhaps somewhat artificial.

Frequently, coding schemes that are based on relatively straightforward elements, such as word counts, do in fact seek to evaluate some aspect of latent content. In such cases, the specific words that are counted may have been chosen to reveal latent content.

For instance, content of a research paper, in an analysis of the rhetoric of two ethnic nationalist Flemish parties in Belgium, Breuning and Ishiyama counted the references in the party platforms to the terms foreigners and immigrants. They theorized that the latter term has the connotation that the speaker or author perceives the persons who are being described as individuals who will integrate into the society and that the former describes individuals who are perceived as permanent outsiders.

In other words, Breuning and Ishiyama used word counts of specific terms to measure the differences in xenophobic attitude between these two ethnic nationalist parties. The coding scheme was transparent and easy to replicate but was designed to evaluate latent content. In addition to simple word counts, content analysis coding schemes may also record valences—that is, the value associated with the word that is coded.

It does, after all, make a difference whether a word is used in a positive or negative construction. Another variation is the use of thematic coding. In this case, the investigator is looking for evidence of specific themes in units of text.

Theme coding can be tricky, since it involves judgment rather than simple counts. However, there are situations where thematic coding is theoretically justified—and word counts may simply not provide the investigator with an appropriate measure, content of a research paper.

In the creation of a coding scheme for thematic coding, extra care must be taken to make very clear and explicit the criteria for judging a unit of text to belong in one versus another category. Such a coding scheme may require pilot testing with several different coders to ensure that these coders share a common understanding of the coding instructions.

The mechanics of designing a content analysis scheme are explored further in the next section of this research paper. It can be difficult to devise a good content analysis study, although this also depends on the objective of the study. If the objective is to produce content of a research paper study that is descriptive of some aspect of text, the construction of a coding scheme may not need to be overly complicated.


5 Ways to Cite a Research Paper - wikiHow


content of a research paper


The research process uncovers what other writers have written about your topic. Your education paper should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. Once you provide the general and specific context of the existing knowledge, then you yourself can build on others' Margaret Cohen. Dec 21,  · How to Cite a Research Paper. When writing a paper for a research project, you may need to cite a research paper you used as a reference. The basic information included in your citation will be the same across all styles. However, the 69%(16). It is usually not present in shorter research articles, since most empirical papers have similar structure.. A well laid out table of contents allows readers to easily navigate your .